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Cycads are seed plants with a very long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today. They typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk with a crown of large, hard and stiff, evergreen leaves. They usually have pinnate leaves. The species are dioecious; therefore, the individual plants of a species are either male or female. Cycads vary in size from having trunks only a few centimeters to several meters tall. They typically grow very slowly and live very long, with some specimens known to be as much as 1,000 years old. Because of their superficial resemblance, they are sometimes mistaken for palms or ferns, but they are not closely related to either group. Best grown in sandy, coarse, well-draining soils in full sun to part shade. Requires a relatively dry period of dormancy in winter but regular watering during the growing season. Hardy in Zones 9-11. Does not tolerate hard frosts. Tolerant of salt spray and some drought. Zamia furfuracea, commonly called cardboard palm, cardboard plant, or Jamaican sago, is a cycad endemic to the coastal mountains and sandy, limestone sea cliffs of Veracruz, Mexico. This plant is not a vigorous grower but will slowly reach up to 4.25' tall with a 7' spread. The stiff, slightly arching fronds are made up of up to 13 pairs of opposite leaflets and emanate from a central crown. The leathery, oblong to oval leaflets have a somewhat coarse, fuzzy texture reminiscent of cardboard. The short, stout stem can grow above or partially below ground. Female plants form cones that require pollen from the cones of male plants to be fertilized. Bright orange, fleshy seeds mature on the fertilized female cones. Genus name derives from zamiae, a false rendering in some texts of Pliny for azaniae, referring to pine-cones. The specific epithet furfuracea means scruffy or mealy, in reference to the surface texture of the leaflets. The common name cardboard palm refers to the surface texture of the leaflets.